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International Starch Trading
Science Park Aarhus, Denmark

starch binder starch stabilizer starch texturizer starch modifier starch thickener starch film former starch adhesive starch humidifier

Industrial Made
In stead of fresh tomatoes industry uses concentrated tomato pure. The pure is mixed with sugar, acidulant (vinegar) and water. Seasoning is added to taste. Starch is added as a texturizer. Starch is cooked and used as a paste.

The pH of the ketchup will typical be 3.5 +/- 0.5

Most popular is the batch process, but a continuous  heat exchanger is a choice.

When the ketchup is pasterurized and  finished, you can pour hot or cool  first.



Functional Properties
Amylose & Amylopectin

Industrial Food Starches:

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Cornstarch covers 83% of world demand for starch. Most made from dent corn. Special varieties are: Waxy,
High amylose 55%,
High amylose 70%.

Wheat Starch has grown to a 6% share supported by EU.

Potato Starch holding a 6% share  depends on EU common agricultural policy.

Tapioca Starch has reached a 4% and increasing share. 

Rice Starch and others are niche products. 

Other starches. These "others" starches are attracting interest because they offer versatility to the food designer, and - as native starches - does not load the food label.


Food Starches

Starch is an important constituent in many foods. It plays an obvious role in achieving the desired viscosity in such products as cornstarch pudding, sauces, pie fillings and gravies. It plays a more subtle role in potatoes, cereals, and baked products such as biscuits, muffins, popovers, pastry, cake and bread.

It is used as a water binding and texturizing agent. It has a high viscosity, water-holding capacity and binding abilities.

Potato Starch

Native Potato Starch is a food grade product derived from potato tubers.

It is a white to off-white powder with a moisture below 20%. Gelatinization temperature: 57 - 65 C. The pH of a slurry in water is neutral. It is an excellent food starch. Potato starch has a lower gelatinization temperature than other starches, a much higher peak viscosity and less resistance to breakdown over prolonged heating. Pastes are extremely clear, with little tendency to retrograde.


Tapioca Starch

Native Tapioca Starch is a food grade product refined from cassava roots. It is used for its bland flavor profile.

It is a white to off-white powder with a moisture below 13%. Gelatinization temperature: 59 - 65 C. The pH of a slurry in water is neutral. Tapioca Starch is very bland and clean in flavor and is not masking the flavors used. Tapioca starch has a good mouth feel, and is often used in the food industry for thickening.

Cooked it forms a quite clear gel with a long and slightly stringy texture. Upon cooling, it sets to a soft gel. It loses most of its thickening ability during prolonged heating and under acidic conditions. The cooked gel resembles that of potato starch, but the texture is less stringy and the flavor i more neutral, making it a preferred thickener in delicate foods and desserts. 

Special food applications: Extruded snacks, where it improves expansion, custard-type pie filling, where it reduces surface cracking and in baby foods as a bodying agent. In biscuits and in cream sandwiches 5-10 % tapioca starch softens the texture and renders the biscuit nonsticky.

In general it may be used as a thickener in foods not subject to rigorous processing. 

For household cooking tapioca starch is the starch of choice in thickening fruit desserts - it gives a clear dessert but with improved and "shorter" texture compared to potato starch. 


Normal native starches consist of a mixture of 15-30 per cent. amylose and 70-85 per cent. amylopectin. Amylose structurally is a linear polymer of anhydroglucose units, of molecular weight approximately between 40 000 and 340 000, the chains containing 250 to 2000 anhydroglucose units. Amylopectin is considered to be composed of anhydroglucose chains with many branch points; the molecular weight may reach as high as 80 000 000 (Re. WHO). Amylose is an unbranched chain which is coiled in the shape of a helix. If iodine is added to a solution containing amylose molecules, the iodine inserts itself into the helix making it rigid. This changes the color of the starch mixture to blue or purple depending on the length of the amylose molecule. Amylopectin is a branching molecule which does not form a helical coil. Thus the iodine is not able to bind to the starch molecule. Amylose contributes to the gelling property of starch whereas amylopectin contributes high viscosity. This classic statement, however, may not be entirely valid. Both properties are used in the preparation of foods.

Starch Source % Amylose Granule Size microns
Waxy Rice


High Amylose Corn






Waxy Sorghum




Sweet Potato









Food Applications

  • filling viscosity aid
  • suspension aid for particulates
  • opacity agent
  • body or texture agent for soups, sauces, puddings and gravies
  • aseptically canned products
  • beverages such as coffee, teas or chocolate
Cereals and Snacks
  • hot extruded snacks
  • chips, pretzels, etc.
  • extruded and fried foods
  • ready-to-eat cereals
  • pies, tarts
  • fillings, glazes
  • custards and icings
  • cakes, donuts, Danish
  • icing sugar
Batters and Breadings
  • coated fried foods
  • frozen battered vegetables, fish and meat
  • dry mix coatings
Dressings, Soups and Sauces
  • mayonnaise-type
  • pourable salad dressings (high shear)
  • spoonable dressings
  • instant dry salad dressing mixes
  • low-fat dressing
  • canned gravies and sauces
  • frozen gravies and sauces
  • soups and chowders
  • ketchup
Cooked Meat Binder
  • water binder for formed meat
  • smoked meats, low-fat meats
  • pet foods (dried and canned)
Frozen Foods
  • fruit fillings
  • meat pies
  • Oriental foods
  • soups, sauces
  • entrees
  • cream-based products
Flavors and Beverage Clouds
  • encapsulation of flavors, fats, oils vitamins, spices, clouding agents
  • spray dried flavors for dry beverage mixes, bartender mixes,
  • beverage emulsions
  • liquid and powdered non-dairy creamers
  • dusting powder
  • licorice
  • jelly gums
  • hard gums
  • panned candies
  • confectioners sugar


Dairy Products
  • yoghurt
  • cheese and imitation cheese
  • chilled desserts
  • UHT Puddings
  • low-fat products
Microwavable Products
  • cheese sauces
  • entrees

Synergies with Carrageenan


Functional Properties of Starches in Foods

  • specific viscosity (hot and cold)
  • thin boiling (faster canning heat transfer)
  • viscosity resistance acid/mechanical sheer
  • freeze-thaw stability (natural / modified)
  • gel texture, body at various temperatures
  • clarity, opacity
  • processing conditions tolerance
  • oil retention, high or low
  • resistance to . setback. (gel formation)
  • high sheen
  • flow properties
  • emulsion stabilizing capacity
  • mouthfeel, lubricity, palate-coating
  • suspension characteristics
  • adhesiveness
  • crystallinity
  • bland taste
  • long shelf-life stability
  • hygroscopicity
  • color
  • anti-caking
  • cold-water swelling or dispersibility
  • swelling and resistance to swelling
  • film-forming properties

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Read Disclaimer notice. Copyright 2004 - 2009 
International Starch Trading, Science Park Aarhus, 
Gustav Wieds Vej 10, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
Tlf: +45 8620 2000 Fax: +45 8730 0224 


How to get there

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Amylose gives the gel strength and the amylopectin gives  high viscosity.

High-amylose starches will give gelling properties and the waxy starches will give  high viscosity.

In solution, the linear amylose molecules more easily align  with one another and  through hydrogen bonding form gels. 

The branched amylopectin molecules align less easily and form weaker gels.

Viscosity is a function of molecular weight. The branched and bulky amylopectin  forms larger molecules than amylose and gives a higher viscosity.

Potato and tapioca starch have a higher molecular weight than cornstarch making it difficult for the molecules to associate and "set back".

The classic statements above, however, are simplistic and may not be entirely valid.

Tapioca starch size distribution:wpe2.gif (4639 bytes) Keywords: glucose,fructose,syrup,starch,native,modified,application,food,viscostar