Potato and cassava pulp is excellent cattle feed. Units: 1 m3 crude oil = 10.120 kWh 1 ton crude oil = 1,16 m3 = 11.740 kWh 1 barrel, bbl crude oil = 0,159 m3 = 1.610 kWh
1 m3 natural gas = 9,3 kWh 1 ton coal = 7.600 kWh = ca. 0,7 ton oil 1 kg uranium oxide (U-308) = 12.600.000 kWh (fission). 1 toe (ton oil equivalent) = 41.86 GJ An electricity plant utilizes 70% of the energy in coal during winter (39% central heating systems + 31% for electricity) and utilizes 37% of the coal energy during summer, when output is electricity only.
Anno 1999 still more than 92% of the world's energy demand (403 EJ/year) originates from fossil resources.
- 40.0% Oil
- 22.5% Natural gas
- 23.3% Coal
- 6.5% Uranium
- 7.0% Hydroelectric
- 0.7% Renewables
(Source: US Energy Administration)
The world energy consumption was in 1999 403 EJ ~ 13 TW ~ 2.1 kW per capita ~ 67 GJ per capita per year.
The per capita consumption in
Europe (EU) is 5.8 kW, in
North America 11.9 kW, and in
Denmark 4.1 kW.
Wind Generator Plant in Denmark Denmark currently generates more than 15% of its electricity from wind, and aims to produce 50% of its electricity from wind by 2030. Sun:
Solar Thermal Plants in Denmark.
Photovoltaic Plants in Denmark
Pretty Blue Planet - Mircosoft Power Point Presentation 1 Mb Effluents:
Biological treatment of effluent from starch modification
Landspreading. Starch tubers contains 70-80% juice with a valuable content of nutrients, which may be utilized as a substitute to artificial fertilizers. The Danes recycle effluent to agricultural land by road tankers or through pipelines. Energy:
Bioethanol is made from starch and starchy crops. Second generation bioethanol is made from agricultural cellulosic waste. Agriculture:
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a natural pathogen and its ability to transfer DNA has turned out to be a most valuable tool in bioengineering.
Meristem programmes provide healthy and high yielding potato and cassava seeds.
Arion lusitanicus is considered a major slug pest of European agriculture. An electric fence may serve as a snail guard. Population:
Human population, graph. Since the last ice age human population has increased and is no longer sustainable by the photosynthesis. The mean value of the solar constant (solar radiation at the outer edge of the earth's atmosphere) is 1370 W/m2 corresponding to 175 PW (petawatt) on an area equivalent to the cross section of the earth. Approximately 30 per cent are reflected (Earth's albedo). A maximum of 1000 W/m2 reaches the surface of the earth. 23 per cent are consumed in the hydrological cycle, which produces rainfall and the potential energy of water in mountain streams and rivers. 0.2% powers wind and waves. The photosynthesis consumes 0.08% and the rest (approx. 47%) is turned into heat. All renewable energy (except tidal and geothermal power), and even the energy in fossil fuels, ultimately comes from the sun. Currently (1999) human activity requires 13 TW fuel (equivalent to 305 t oil per second). This means that the solar energy resource is over 10,000 times the world's current annual primary energy use. Accessible energy from wind and waves is far less and inadequate, which brings photovoltaic plants in focus as a future primary energy source.
In temperate climatic zones solar energy declines in winter, where energy is needed the most. Fortunately the wind behaves opposite. Supply and demand prepare the way for renewable energy and renewable raw materials for the chemical industry. As sun and wind increasingly substitutes oil, starch - being a most versatile polymeric photosynthetic product - challenges oil as raw material for many an industrial product.
Ten to forty t per ha of pure starch are produced by photosynthesis dependent on plant variety and origin. More than 40,000,000 t per annum (1998) of starch is industrial extracted worldwide and used as native starch, modified starch and as starch based sweeteners. 125,000,000 t per annum oil is used for plastic. 25% is used for packaging materials.
Present world population at European level would consume 36 TW.
The world emmision of carbon dioxide was 1999 6 Pg.
In Denmark electricity produced from wind reaches 5000 GWh in 2001 ~ 16% of total electricity consumed.
Windenergy, however, make up only 0.1 kW per capita ~2% of total energy in Denmark.
The Danes consumed 1998 642 PJ. The total annual energy input from the sun is 150 EJ.
Renewables make up 15% of total Danish energy consumption (2008). The governmental plan sets the target at 20% in 2020 increasing to 30% in 2030. Eventually 100% will be reached, but not planned yet.