INDUSTRIAL FOOD APPLICATIONS. Dressing Starch Based Salad Dressings. A salad dressing is an "oil in water" emulsion. There are two types of salad dressing, pourable Ketchup. How to make Ketchup
Yogurth Yoghurt is produced by the controlled fermentation of milk by two species of bacteria How to make homemade Potato Starch. Same procedure as used on farms in the old days. How to make Candy. Basic principles in candy making. E-numbers. The list gives the "E number" and the name of those additives listed in three specific EU-directives on starch food additives. Food Starches. Native potato starch, tapioca starch and various waxy starches are are particular suited for food purposes. Starch Synergies with Carrageenan Synergies of Carrageenan in Starch Based Systems. Carrageenan is obtained by extraction with water or alkaline water of certain species of the class Rhodophyceae. TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS. The use of starch in papermaking is as old as the printed word itself. Textile Starches Modified thinboiling starches like acid-modified, oxidized and ethylated are used in the textile industry. The use of starch in Oil drilling is friendly to the environment. PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS. Pharmacopeia Monograph's on starch. Monographs on various starches and starch products.
STARCH AND STARCH SWEETENER PROPERTIES ERH Equilibrium Relative Humidity (ERH) of Confectionery
Functionality of Starch Syrup: Table listing properties and functional uses of starch based syrups in a variety of food. MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets on native and modified starches and technical manufacturing materials, DS Data Sheets on starch and derived products
|Mayonnaise||Soft drinks||Pellets||Biodegradable plastic||Tablets||Mineral fibre tiles|
|Baby food||Beer||By products||Dusting powder||Gypsum board|
|Meat sausages||Jelly gums||Seed coating||Warp||Corrugated board||Foundries|
|Meat rolls and loaves||High-boiled sweets||Fertiliser||Fabrics||Water treatment|
|Snacks||Jam||Fermentation||Non-Wowen||Printing paper||Oil drilling|
|Pizza sauces||Ice cream||Vinegar||Hygienic diapers||Stain remover|
|Sauces||Dairy cream||Enzymes||Baby diapers||Packaging material||Glue|
|Low fat foods||Fruit fillings||Sanitary napkins||Foamed starch|
High fructose starch-based syrups (HFSS) are used for soft drinks as a sugar replacement with similar sweetness. HFSS 55, is a most concentrated sweetener used primarily in beverages. It is a direct replacement of sugar. HFSS 42, an all-purpose sweetener, does also find uses in beverages. HFSS stabilize the flavour profile. Beer. High maltose syrups find use as wort syrup in beer production. It is an excellent fermentation substrate and fermentation can be controlled by the sugar spectrum of the syrup. Some yeast species are sensitive to high concentrations of glucose but maltose does not have any suppression effect on yeast. Alcohol. Very high DE glucose syrups are used as a fermentation booster in alcohol fermentation. Dextrose syrup has the advantage, that it is completely used up and do not add to by-products and may improve throughput when capacity is exhausted. Instant coffee. Following conventional coffee cleaning and roasting the prepared coffee is ground and extracted in counter current column batteries using split or fraction technique to optimise yields or by using continuos extraction. The extract is concentrated in falling film evaporators or rotary thin film concentrators with final blending to produce a prime quality concentrate. A maltodextrin (low DE glucose syrup) may be added as a carrier or extender. The concentrate is conducted in a co-current nozzle tower and the coffee powder is discharged in cooled free-flowing form ready for packing. Further agglomeration produces a coarser product. go to top Confectionary Ice cream. Starch products are used as crystal and texture controller. High maltose and high conversion syrups control softness and freezing characteristics. Today's ice cream has the following composition:
greater than 10% milkfat - usually between 10% and as high as 16% fat in some premium ice creams
9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat: this component contains the proteins (caseins and whey proteins) and carbohydrates (lactose) found in milk
12 to 16% sweeteners: usually a combination of sucrose and glucose syrup
0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers
55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients
A sweet ice cream is usually desired by the consumer. As a result, sweetening agents are added to ice cream mix at a rate of usually 12 - 16% by weight. Sweeteners improve the texture and palatability of the ice cream, enhance flavors, and are usually the cheapest source of total solids. In addition, the sugars contribute to a depressed freezing point so that the ice cream has some unfrozen water associated with it at very low temperatures typical of their serving temperatures, -15 to -18 C. Without this unfrozen water, the ice cream would be too hard to scoop.
It has become common in the industry to substitute all or a portion of the sucrose content with sweeteners derived from starch syrup. This sweetener is reported to contribute a firmer and more chewy body to the ice cream, is an economical source of solids, and improves the shelf life of the finished product. Starch syrup in either its liquid or dry form is available in varying dextrose equivalents (DE). As the DE is increased by hydrolysis of the starch, the sweetness of the solids is increased and the average molecular weight is decreased. This results in an increase in the freezing point depression, in such foods as ice cream, by the sweetener. The lower DE starch syrup contains more dextrins which tie up more water in the mix thus supplying greater stabilizing effect against coarse texture.
HFSS High fructose starch-based syrup can be used to a much greater extent in sucrose replacement. However, these HFSS further reduce the freezing point producing a very soft ice cream at usual conditions of storage and dipping in the home. A balance is involved between sweetness, total solids, and freezing point. go to top Confectionery. High conversion glucose syrups replase sucrose and imparts products with less hygroscopicity and a better viscosity profile. High maltose syrups controls moisture and texture in soft confections. Candy. High amylose cornstarch contains as much as 70% amylose compared to 25-28% in ordinary cornstarch. This makes it a particular strong gelling agent in the manufacture of fine jelly gum candies. High amylose cornstarch is used in combination with normal fluidity starches (thin boiling starches). Up to half the starch is commonly replaced by high amylose starch to obtain quick setting candy piece with an attractive texture. Tapioca speciality dextrins replaces from 20% to 40% of gum Arabic in some hard gum candies. High-Boiled Sweets. High-boiled sugar confectionery is expected not to be sticky or crystallised when reaching the consumer. The stability with respect to moisture pickup and stickiness depends on its ERH. The ERH of high- boiled sweets is approximately 30%, and since the atmospheric humidity is nearly always above this, there is a tendency to absorb moisture from the atmosphere.
Initially this occurs on the surface, with a thin film of a solution of lower solids forming with a lower viscosity. This in turn leads to crystallization of the sucrose (graining). To produce high-boiled sweets with a satisfactory shelf life, the final product must contain a minimum amount of residual moisture and the correct balance of sugar and glucose. To obtain a product with satisfactory texture and shelf life, a combination of sucrose and glucose in a 60:40 ratio is generally used. Medium conversion glucose syrup (42DE) is commonly used, which contains a wide range of simple to higher sugars. This is more resistant to water absorption from the atmosphere due to a raised ERH value and is less liable to grain, however, there are some downside effects - such as a higher viscosity, which makes the finished product difficult to crunch; the sweetness level is lower. Some of these can be overcome by the use of more specialized syrups such as High Maltose.
The use of invert sugar as a doctor in high-boiled sweets has all but been replaced by glucose syrup. Glucose syrup (42 DE) exhibits a higher relative vapour pressure and at the levels required to prevent sugar crystallization, the invert sugar will cause serious stickiness due to hygroscopicity. go to top Marshmallows. As marshmallows have a soluble solids content of 78-80%, the prevention of crystallization depends on the choice of an effective doctor carbohydrate. The hygroscopic nature of these products is again influenced by the ERH and marshmallows have an ERH range of 65-75%.
When considering an appropriate doctor for marshmallow, we find the use of invert sugar, 42DE glucose syrup and 63 DE glucose syrup. When comparing the relative vapour pressure, we find that where invert sugar is used, the relative vapour pressure (73.3%) is lower than when glucose syrups are used and therefore will pickup moisture from the atmosphere. This is important to remember if selling product in high humidity markets.
The use of 42 DE glucose will give lower moisture pickup, but may not deliver the desired sweetness or texture levels. It may be more desirable to use 63 DE glucose. This will retain more moisture and facilitate faster whipping, (due to a lower viscosity) and deliver a higher sweetness level. Marmalade and jam. For proper texture, jellied fruit products require the correct combination of fruit, pectin, acid, and sugar.
Sugar serves as a preserving agent, contributes flavor, and aids in gelling. Cane and beet sugar are the usual sources of sugar for jelly or jam. Starch syrup may be used to replace part of the sugar in recipes, but too much will mask the fruit flavor and alter the gel structure. Too little sugar prevents gelling and may allow yeasts and molds to grow.
Medium high glucose syrup - 63 DE - replaces sugar in marmalade and jam. To provide good shelf life a high sugar concentration is required and for the purpose a 63 DE syrup is preferred to the traditional 42 De syrup. High conversion syrups and HFS adds more sweetness and increase osmotic pressure (better shelf life). Canning. Maltodextrins and low conversions syrups add body to canned sauces. High conversion syrups add body and sweetness to canned fruit. HFS add seetness. Foundries. Starch is used as a core binder in castings (cast molds). go to top Animal feed. Starch is used as a binder and nutrient in animal feed pellets.
Pulp wet as is like roughage or dried. The dried pulp finds some use as a moisture absorber in soft foods for fur animals and fish.
Wheat gluten is used as a meat extender or replacer in pet food
Potato protein is a valuable protein for fur animals and small pigs. Concrete. Starch finds use as a retarder in concrete. Starch products are used for reducing set-time in cement. go to top Oil drilling. Pregelatinized starch is used to increase viscosity of drilling mud and to reduce fluid loss by sealing the walls of boreholes. Cross-linking imparts higher temperature stability. Starch ethers impart tolerance to polyvalent cations and sea water. Read more ... Gypsum & Mineral Fiber. Starch is used as a binder in gypsum plaster, gypsum and mineral fibre board. Nappy / Diaper. Starch is used as an adhesive. Diapers with superabsorbent gelling materials in their core has been developed with gelling materials capable of sequestering 80 times their weight of moisture. Starch based products may substitute high-molecular-weight, cross-linked sodium polyacrylate polymers as the absorbent. go to top Water. Starch products are used as flocculants in many industrial water treatment plants for flocculation purposes. Coal. Briquettes made of coal dust and fines are bound with starch as a binder Detergent. Starch finds use as a redeposition inhibitor of dirt once it has been released from the fabric. Pharmacy. Starch acts as a binder in pharmaceutical tablets and as a disintegrating agent as well. Special starch is used as dusting powder and surgical glove powder. go to top Agriculture. Copolymerizing starch with acrylonitril and alkaline hydrolysis gives a super absorbing polymer, "Super-Slurper" used for coating of seeds to improve presence of water for faster germination and to improve water capacity of soil for potted plants. go to top
Stain remover. To remove a stain with an absorbent powder, sprinkle a layer of starch powder over the stain. Spread the starch round, and as soon as it becomes gummy lift, shake or brush it off. Repeat this until nothing further is being absorbed. If a mark still remains after this, mix the powder to a paste, using water for non-greasy stains and a grease solvent (see "for greasy marks"). Leave standing till dry, then brush off.
Dusting powders. Dusting powder consists of finely powdered substances free of grittiness. They are used on normal intact skin prophylactically to reduce friction (talc) or moisture (starch). By cross-linking starch can be stand sterilising in autoclave and be used as surgical dusting powder.go to top Paper. Thin-boiling starches is used as sizing on most paper. Cationic starches are used as wet-end additives improving filler retension and reducing effluent load. Starch is used for for coating. Read more ... Corrugated board. Native starch in mixture with pregelatinized starch is applied on top of the corrugated flute before lining. The native starch acts as an instant glue with good tack when heat is applied.
Card board may be produced by gluing liners together with a starch based glue.
Textile Starch is used for sizing yarn to improve abrasion resistance in fast looms. Starch is is used for finishing fabrics to add feel, stiffness or to provide a good printing surface. Thin-boiling starches are preferred. Read more ...Plastics & Packaging. In plastics starches improve the biodegradability of plastic and finished products. Foamed Starch. Starch can be environmentally friendly blown into a foamed material using water steam. Foamed starch is antistatic, insulating and shock absorbing, therefore a good replacement for polystyrene foam. It can be used as packaging material or can be pressed into starch-based sheet for thin-walled products, such as trays, disposable dishes, cups etc or used as loose-fill for packaging. It offers numerous disposal alternatives and can be a good substitute of CFCs-blown PS. go to top